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Семестровая работа Перевод с английского на русский язык

Автор:   •  Январь 14, 2018  •  Контрольная работа  •  3,591 Слов (15 Страниц)  •  301 Просмотры

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Министерство образования и науки Российской Федерации

Волжский политехнический институт (филиал)

Государственного образовательного учреждения

Высшего образования

«Волгоградский государственный технический университет»

Кафедра «Иностранные языки»

Семестровая работа

Перевод с английского на русский язык

Выполнил: студентка гр. ВТПЭ-1

Варфоломеева С.П.

Проверил: к. ф. н, доцент

Крячко В.Б.

Волжский, 2017

Mercury (Chemical properties. Applications) Platinum

Ртуть (Химические свойства. Применение) Платина

Выходные данные:

Chemical of the Week: [Электронный ресурс]. М., 2017. URL: scifun.chem.wisc.edu/chemweek/chemweek.html? (Дата обращения: 10.05.2017).

Platinum [Электронный ресурс]. М., 2017. URL: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Platinum(Дата обращения: 10.05.2017).

Abstract

The article describes the properties of mercury, in addition to the use of this element. The author draws attention to the fact that people began to find its sources not only in the bowels of the earth, but in different animals. The article deals with the chemical and physical characteristics of platinum, as well as its occurrence. The article is of particular interest because Platinum is an extremely rare metal and its physical characteristics and chemical stability make it useful for industrial applications. The information given in the article will be interesting for those who are interested to study various properties of chemical elements.

Аннотация

В статье говорится о ртути, так же использование этого элемента. Автор обращает внимание на то, что люди стали находить её источники не только в недрах земли, но и в различных животных. В статье описываются химические и физические свойства платины, а также её возникновение. Статья представляет особый интерес, поскольку платина является чрезвычайно редким металлом, физические свойства и химическая стойкость делает её полезной для промышленного применения. Информация, приведенная в статье будет интересна тем, кто заинтересован изучением различных свойств химических элементов.

Mercury

    Mercury is named after the fleet-footed Roman god Mercury. Its chemical symbol, Hg, derives from its Latin name, hydrargyrum, which means liquid silver. Mercury, the only metal that is a liquid at room temperature, melts at –38.9 ºC, and boils at 356.6 ºC. Elemental mercury is extremely toxic and rarely occurs free in nature. It is often found as the mineral cinnabar, HgS, which is a red solid at room temperature. Mercury is produced from cinnabar by heating it in air. The mercury vapor that is produced is distilled and cooled to form liquid mercury.

        Mercury is used in thermometers, barometers, electrical switches, mercury vapor lamps, fluorescent lamps, paints, fungicides, insecticides, and antiseptics. Mercury vapor lamps are often used to light streets and gymnasiums. Mercury readily forms alloys known as amalgams with other metals and has been used for the extraction of precious metals such as gold. Dental amalgams are prepared by mixing approximately equal parts liquid mercury and an alloy powder composed of silver, tin, and copper. Industrially, mercury has been used primarily in battery manufacturing and chlorine-alkali production. In the chloralkali industry, the major process is electrolysis of aqueous sodium chloride, NaCl, to produce sodium hydroxide, NaOH, and chlorine, Cl2. The aqueous chloride ion is oxidized at a carbon anode in the reaction, and water is reduced at a liquid mercury cathode.

        Mercury was commonly used in thermometers and barometers because it has a high rate of thermal expansion that is fairly constant over a wide temperature range. For safety reasons, mercury is no longer used in thermometers, and as a result of state and federal legislation and voluntary programs, most uses in paints and batteries have been limited.

             In the late 1980s, researchers found that fish taken from lakes in very remote areas from all around the world had high levels of mercury. These findings implicated atmospheric deposition as a major contaminant source of mercury. Mercury is found in the environment as a result of natural and human activities. Natural sources include volcanoes, natural mercury deposits, and volatilization from the ocean. The primary human-related sources include coal combustion, chlorine alkali processing, waste incineration, and metal processing. Best estimates to date suggest that human activities have about doubled or tripled the amount of mercury in the atmosphere, and the atmospheric burden is increasing by about 1.5 percent per year. Global anthropogenic emissions of mercury are estimated to range between 2000 and 6000 metric tons per year. Electric utilities, municipal waste combustors, commercial and industrial boilers, and medical waste incinerators account for approximately 80 percent of the total amount. Coal-fired utility boilers are the largest point source of unregulated mercury emissions in the United States.

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