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Types of grammatical transformations in translation

Автор:   •  Май 27, 2019  •  Творческая работа  •  974 Слов (4 Страниц)  •  46 Просмотры

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Types of grammatical transformations in translation

Types

Meaning

Examples

1

Substitution

Substitution stands for using a word for another to give identical meaning as it has mentioned above.

1) Her hair is fair and wavy. – У неї світле хвилясте волосся. 2) He is a poor swimmer. – Вiн погано плаває.

2

Transposition

Transposition - it’s a change in the order of linguistic elements, which are words, phrases, clauses and sentences.The transposition of the sentence elements is sometimes called sentence restructuring, because the sentence is getting restructured in the process of translation.

1)There are many people at the bus stop. – На автобуснiй зупинцi багато людей. 2) My friend`s wedding. – Весiлля мого друга. 3) What is this book about? – Про що ця книга?

3

Omission for grammatical reasons

Omission is a kind of grammatical transformations, the opposite of addition. It is a question of omission in the translation of excessive linguistic units.

1) I regret to say that I miss ypur point. - На жаль, я не розумію, що ви натякаєте. 2) I washed myself. – Я вмився. 3) He raised his hand. – Вiн пiдняв руку.

4

Addition for grammatical reasons

Addition a grammatical transformations, in which the translated text appears in new lexical elements, revealing what is originaly expresssed in grammatical terms.

1) This is the house I live in. – Це дiм, в якому я живу. 2) To solve this problem, we had to involve the experts. – Щоб вирiшити цю проблему, ми були змушенi притягнути експертiв. 3) The first to come was Nastya. – Першим, хто прийшов була Настя.

5

Complex transformation

This type of transformations concerns both the lexical and grammatical level, it touches upon structure and meaning.

1) «Happy!» she echoed, «I am only happy, Sibyl, when I see you act. - Радіти? - відповіла вона. Я радію, Сибила, тільки тоді коли бачу тебе на сцені. 2)Dorian! What an extraordinary piece of luck. – Дорiан! Яке щастя!

Types of lexical transformations in translation

Types

Meaning

Examples

1

Differentiation of meaning

Differentiation of meaning is such a transformation which presupposes the word of a broader semantics being substituted for a word with narrow semantics. The choice of a more specific word in translation which gives a more detailed description of the idea. English often makes use of general terms to define very definite objects and actions.

Justice — справедливість, правосуддя, юстиція.

2

Specification of meaning

Specification, or substituting words with a wider meaning with words of a narrower meaning ( recognized from the context ).

1) Have you had your meal?- Ви вже поснідали?; Пообідали?; Повечеряли? ( в залежності від часу дня ). 2) I ordered a drink. - Я замовив віскі. 3) Will you do the room? - Ти прибирешся у кімнаті?

3

Generalization

This type of lexical transformations is used to generalize the meaning of the words during translation from English into Ukrainian. Generalization of a narrower meaning with those of a wider meaning.

 1) She bought the Oolong tea on her way home. – Вона купила китайського чаю по дорозi додому. ( Oolong is a sort of Chinese tea but for the receptor this information is not important, thereofore, the translater can generalize )

4

Modulation

Modulation is a logical development of the notion expressed by the word. In this type we used the metonymical closeness of word meanings based on contiguity of the two notions.

1) But outside it was raining. – Але на вулицi йшов дощ.

5

Antonymic translation

Antonymic translation is a kind of grammatical and lexical transformation which substitutes an affirmative construction for a negative or vice versa with some accompanying lexical change, usually substituting the antonym for the original word.

1) There are no fees for university studies nor special taxes for exams. - Навчання у вузах безкоштовне, за складання екзаменів ніяка плата не збирається. / Навчання і складання екзаменів — безкоштовні. 2) Alex didn`t say anything. - Алекс промовчав. 3) His name is not unknown to me. - Його ім`я мені відомо.

4) No smoking. - Курити заборонено.

6

Holistic transformation

Holistic transformation is a translation method which is used when it is necessary to understand the meaning of what have to be translated and retell it in Ukrainian with words sometimes very different from the original words.

1) Here you are. – Ось, будь ласка. 2) Well done! – Браво! Молодець! 3) Now then! – Ану, скорiше! 4) Help yourself. – Пригощайтесь. 5) Here, here! – Правильно, правильно!  

7

Compensation of losses in translation

Compensation is a technique which involves making up for the loss of a source text effect by recreating a similar effect in the target text thtough means that are specific to the target language and/or text. Compensation may be semantic or stylistic character.

1) Christmas Holidays. – Зимовi канiкули. 2) Christmas present. – Новорiчний подарунок. – semantic compensation.

3)  Hush! It is quite OK. – Тсс! Не бiйтесь.

8

Addition for lexical reasons

While translating into English are frequent cases when , for various reasons , it is necessary to enter words that are not in the original. All cases of addition can be divided into two categories. First, to replace the word, which has no equivalent in the Ukrainian language. Second, for specification.

1) The spoilmen looked upon political power as a means of participating in the general riches. - Продажні політикани розглядали політичну владу як засіб участі в загальному поділі награбованого. 2) Lunch – Другий снiданок. 3) Takeover – Поглинання одного підприємства iншим.

9

Omission for lexical reasons

In the translation process for lexical reasons some words of the original may be omitted. Frequent cases of omission of words when expressed in the original in a few words can be transmitted in Ukraine with one word. Modal words ( can, could ) is often ommited.

1) I have many things to do before leaving.- Мені ще багато потрібно зробити до від`їзду.

2) Women teacher – Вчителька. 3) He was shortsighted and could not recognize his friends when he passed in the street. – Вiн був таким короткозорим, що не пiзнавав знайомих на вулицi.

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