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The theory of process in tourism

Автор:   •  Декабрь 25, 2017  •  Курсовая работа  •  9,490 Слов (38 Страниц)  •  376 Просмотры

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                               FACULTY OF ECONOMICS

                              DEPARTMENT OF TOURISM




                Done by: Zhetpisbayeva Aisa                           Talgatovna, student of 2nd course specialty tourism

                                                                                     Scientific director: Karatayev Didar Dautovich




The twenty-first century, along with many phenomenal events and phenomena in the world, shows the almost explosive nature of tourism. Today, tourism tops the list of most important socio-economic sectors in the world economy. It becomes a way of life for millions of people on our planet. Its beneficial effect on the development of political, social, cultural relations and interpersonal relations on an international scale has become obvious for everyone fact.

In modern conditions tourism plays a significant role in the interaction of economies and mutual enrichment of cultures. To the extent that, as tourism developed and became an integral part of modern life have increased, its value, and travel companies have begun to cover a wide range of problems, from production of tourism services, their placement and positioning, segmentation of the tourist market to strategic marketing activities.

Currently, to ensure the successful sale of tours travel companies need to do more than just create and track their excellent quality, to set prices and organize the best way. Different companies tend to sell their services, accompanying them with informative references, that is, to develop the communication function of marketing, especially advertising, to develop a system of integrated customer service, motivate staff, and develop strategic direction.

It is known that each director is primarily interested in the final result of the activities of the company, i.e. the commercial success of the enterprise. And the success of this depends on how well formed round. No travel company may not use only available in its range routes. Constantly changing concepts of the population about the best types of recreation, changing fashion for prestigious destinations, new resort areas, new customers come with new requests for the organization of business or other tours not previously covered by the tour operator regions. No firm may not take into account the constantly changing demand for certain services that require tourists; none can do without the UPS and downs of demand for its services during the year. The commercial success of tourism firms also depends on, what tours it offers, which travel services are provided and how well everything is done.


                         I. The theory of process in tourism

1.1 Definition of entrepreneurship

In economic literature the term “entrepreneur” first appeared in the Universal dictionary of Commerce, what published in Paris in 1723. As a scientific term, the concept of “entrepreneur” appeared in the works of the famous English economist of the early eighteenth century, Richard Cantillon. French K. Bodo went on R. cantilena. He noted that the entrepreneur must possess some intelligence, i.e. information and knowledge. Another French economist Turgot believed that the entrepreneur must not only possess certain information, but also capital. He noted that capital is the basis of the whole economy, the profit – purpose of the success of the entrepreneur, the basis for the development of production.  A. Marshall and his followers paid much attention to managerial functions of the entrepreneur and believed that not everyone can be an entrepreneur, highlighting entrepreneurial skills.  The scientific study of entrepreneurship was first carried out by the Austrian economist.Schumpeter (1883-1950) in his work “the Theory of economic development” (1912).

Today there is no universally accepted definition of entrepreneurship. American scientist, Professor Robert Hirsch defines: “Entrepreneurship as the process of creating something new that has value, and entrepreneur — as someone who spends all necessary time and effort, assumes all financial, psychological and social risk, receiving in reward money and satisfaction achieved”. English Professor Alan Hosking says: “The individual entrepreneur is the person who conducts the business at his own expense, is personally involved in the management of the business and is personally responsible for ensuring that the necessary resources, takes decisions independently”. His reward is received as a result of business activities profit and sense of satisfaction that he experiences from taking free enterprise. But along with this he must assume the entire risk of loss in the event of the bankruptcy of his enterprise.

In the Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan "Code about entrepreneurship" notes that "entrepreneurial activity (entrepreneurship) is an initiative independent activity of citizens and their associations, aimed at obtaining profit."

Entrepreneurship is a special kind of economic activity (by which we mean purposeful activity aimed at profit), which is based on self-initiative, responsibility and innovative entrepreneurial idea.

Entrepreneurship is characterized by the obligatory presence of innovative moment — whether it's manufacturing a new product, change of activity profile or the Foundation of a new enterprise. The new system of production management, quality, implementation of new methods of production or new technologies — is also innovative moments.

The main subject of business activity of the entrepreneurs. However, the entrepreneur is not the only subject, in any case, he is forced to interact with the consumer as its main counterparty, as well as with the state, which in different situations can act as an assistant or opponent. And the consumer, and the state also belong to the category of entities of entrepreneurial activity as an employee (unless, of course, the entrepreneur is not working alone) and business partners (if the production is not isolated from the public relations nature).


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