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Pionies. Пион

Автор:   •  Октябрь 17, 2018  •  Доклад  •  1,834 Слов (8 Страниц)  •  128 Просмотры

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Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan

E.A.Buketova Karaganda State University

Faculty of Biology and Geoghraphy

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                          Theme: Pionies

Written by: Iskakova S. BN-21

Approved by: Azhigenova S.K

                                                  Karaganda 2018

Peony - the oldest plant. It so happened that the ancient peoples (Egyptians, Babylonians) planted gardens in which plants were grown specially imported from other countries. Persians and Greeks cultivated gardens for educational purposes. It was in those days that the first descriptions of the pion were found.

The history of pions

Peony - a truly luxurious flower. For a long time he was worthy of the artist's paintings and palace halls. No wonder he is considered the king of all colors. By its beauty and splendor peony competed with the rose. He was loved both in ancient Europe and in ancient China. Legends were written about him and attributed to him miraculous properties. For example, in Greece the description of beads from pieces of a peony which wore on a neck since infantile years has remained. It was believed that it heals and frightens off evil spirits.

 In China, 1500 years ago, the peony adorned the imperial gardens. Artistic court gardeners already then brought out new varieties. Surprisingly, the common people were not allowed to grow peonies in their garden. It was a very expensive flower, and until now it is considered a symbol of wealth and nobility. In our time to give it means the desire for good and prosperity.

Japanese gardeners have brought out many tree-like varieties. It was then that a special form of a flower was obtained, which later was called "Japanese".

Until now, in the East, peony is considered a flower that incites passion. Young girls are recommended to keep him in the room to attract love.

 In ancient Rome, this flower scientists mentioned in their writings as medicinal, and described in detail what diseases it should be applied. Almost all the healers of the ancient world were preparing medicinal drugs from the root of this flower. And to this day is well known tincture of the roots of the peony, which has a calming effect, helps with sleep disorders.

 In ancient Greece the peony flower was considered a symbol of longevity. There is an opinion that he got his name from the Greek word "paionios", which in the translation sounds like a healing one.

 In Russian history, there is a reference to the fact that in the 16th century peonies grew in monasteries and in royal gardens. There is an opinion that Peter 1 brought them to Russia. Then they were distinguished simply - species with ordinary flowers used for medicinal purposes, terry varieties were grown for decorative use. To the Far East, and then to Siberia, the peony comes from Japan.

 In the beginning of the 19th century a mass conquest began with the pioneer of Europe. From China to the territory of modern England, France and the Netherlands are new varieties of this flower, which immediately win the hearts of European gardeners. This is a whole group of varieties of milky-flowered peony, which today has 3 names:

 

Peony milky - flowering (P. lactiflora P.) - according to the modern botanical classification;

Peony white - flowering (R. albiflora P.) - according to the old botanical classification;

Peony Chinese (R. chinensis) - according to historical and geographical origin.

In Europe, the most fond of the peony in France, where famous gardeners of the time were enthusiastically working on the creation of new fine varieties. Some of them are popular today. Basically, these are specimens with thick-flowered flowers of white and pink coloration and a delicate aroma.

 At the end of the 19th century English and American breeders began to work on breeding new varieties. This work brought to the world new tones of peonies, a greater ornamentality of leaves and an increase in the size of the bush.

 At the beginning of the last century, selection work began in Russia. The best breeders of our country worked on the reproduction of new species of peony. Special distribution of this amazing flower was in the post-war years, when life began to improve slowly, and people especially wanted to decorate their gardens. Today, the love of this culture can be judged by the number of communities - lovers of peonies.

Description:

Peony (Latin Paeónia) belongs to the genus of perennials. Family - Pion (Paeoniaceae). Maybe, both grassy and shrubby.

 This plant with a large rhizome, which goes deep into the earth.

 A peony bush is large, with decorative foliage. The height of the bush can reach 1 m. The color of the leaves varies from green to almost violet. During the vegetative season, he can change the color of the leaves.

Peony flowers are single, sometimes reach a diameter of 15-25 centimeters. According to the form, depending on the variety, there are pink, double and globular.

 Fruits are a complex multi-leaf. Each leaflet contains several large, round, black seeds. In some species of pions, the fruits are highly decorative.

 Due to its drought - and frost resistance - peony is a welcome guest in our gardens. In the wild, it can be found in the forest belt of the European part of our country, in the west of Yakutia, in the east of Transbaikalia, in Western and Eastern Siberia.

 This flower prefers sunny well-lit (or slightly shaded) places. In one place can grow up to 10-15 years.

 Peonies bloom in late spring - early summer. Some varieties bloom in the middle of July-August. The duration of flowering depends on the variety and can last from 8 to 20 days.

 Peony is a very decorative plant. It is appreciated for its luxurious flowers and beautiful triple leaves. Long since, describing this flower, they mentioned his majestic beauty.

 Propagation of pions by seeds and vegetatively - division of the bush, root, stalk, layers and buds of renewal.

       [pic 2][pic 3] [pic 4]

Пион – древнейшее растение. Так сложилось, что древние народы (египтяне, вавилоняне) закладывали сады, в которых специально выращивали растения, привезенные из других стран. Персы и греки возделывали сады в образовательных целях. Именно в те времена встречаются первые описания пиона.

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